ANSI/AGMA C08 includes updated and extensively revised information from ANSI/AGMA B89 along with additional information needed to achieve . Download ANSI-AGMA B Gear Materials and Heat Treatment Manual. Index of AGMA Standards and Information Sheets by Number. 1 ANSI/AGMA B89 Gear Materials and Heat. Treatment Manual.
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Consideration must be given to the case depth relative to the depth of the impression made by the tester.
Bottom poured ingots show improved macrocleanliness and ingot yield more usable ingot metal after conventional cropping or removal of the top pipe cavity and bottom discard of top poured ingots. Direct quenching generally results in less distortion than slow cooled, reheated and quenched gears, providing gears afma properly cooled from the carburizing temperature to the quench temperature before hardening.
Surface hardness will also increase with increasing nitride case depth. Alloy steel, manufactured by electric furnace practice using part or all of the cleanliness techniques discussed in 4.
Minor discontinuities in finish machined teeth, if present, are often contour ground for removal, in preference to cosmetic weld repair. The hardening patterns shown are not possible for all sizes and diametral pitches. Round and flat stock can be purchased in numerous combinations of mechanical and thermal processing, such as hot rolled, cold rolled, cold drawn, stress relieved, pickled, annealed, and quenched and tempered. These fragmented particles can cause surface damage.
Item Detail – ANSI/AGMA C08 (reaffirmed March )
Steels purchased to predicted hardenability ranges are called HBand steels. Grain size is specified as either coarse grain size 1 through 4 or fine grain size 5 through 8determined according to ASTM E Inadequate slack quench can seriously affect machinability in these steels. It is necessary that the designer use a source of metallurgical knowledge of materials and processing. Flame and induction hardening have been used successfully on most gear types; e.
Carrigan Emerson Electric P. The designer should not specify a tempering temperature range on the drawing.
Machinability of Common Gear Materials.
Tempering should be for a sufficient time to insure that hardened teeth reach the specified tempering temperature. This energy controls the depth of the peening effect. An aggma or separately cast test bar does not necessarily represent the properties obtained in the casting. Size limitations and mechanical agmw are listed in Table A test coupon is an appropriately sized sample often a bar used generally for surface hardening treatments. For high bending strength applications, it is not desirable to have the hardening pattern terminate in the roots of the teeth because of residual tensile stress considerations.
ANSI-AGMA 2004-B89-1995 Gear Materials and Heat Treatment Manual
Land width should be calculated before a case is specified. In larger sections, conventional oil can be used. Modified methods of quench hardening, such as austempering of ductile iron, reduces distortion and forms a modified hardened structure at higher quenchant temperatures than those conventionally used refer to 4.
In addition to materials used for gears which are described in this Manual there are other ferrous materials used for gears.
Other instruments such as Scleroscope or Equotip are also used when penetration hardness testers can not be used. Smaller gears generally have a solid web and hub design, with possible cored holes in the web or flange for weight reduction. Parts are normally air cooled from the tempering temperature. Over HB, machinability is fair. AGMA quality level will be reduced approximately one level from the green condition after flame or induction hardening unless subsequent finishing is performed.
Effective case depth for flame and induction hardened gears is normally defined as the distance below the surface at the 0. Shot types available are cast steel Sconditioned cut wire CWglass bead, and ceramic.
The properties in the casting are dependent upon the size and design of the casting and foundry practice. Improved steel cleanliness has the effect of improving the transverse and tangential properties of forged steel in order to approach, but not equal, the longitudinal properties.
Incoming Material Quality Control. Reprinting of AGMA The following sections describe items that the designer should include in a shot peening specification. In order to guarantee nitrogen adsorption it may be necessary to remove surface oxidation by chemical or mechanical means. Several areas must be considered when processing. Rockwell C hardness measurements are made along the length of the bar on ground flats in one sixteenth of an inch 1.
The family of cast irons is classified by the following categories. Flame hardened parts which are air quenched are self tempered, and separate tempering is unnecessary.
Furnaces should be capable of maintaining a carburizing atmosphere with controllable carbon potential. These bronzes are tough and have good corrosion resistance. Through hardening may be used before or after the gear teeth are formed. Forged or hot rolled die generated gear teeth, with the direction of inclusion metal flow parallel to the profile of teeth, result in the optimum direction of inclusions for gearing. Microstructure will vary with the core hardness as related to steel hardenability, section size and quench severity.
The purpose of this Section is to establish methods for specifying carbonitrided gearing. Reference should be made to Table for a list of typical carburizing materials and Appendix C for case hardenability considerations. Work continued on the Standard with numerous additional revised drafts within the Metallurgy and Materials Committee until it was balloted in