ASTM. D. D Standard Guide for Evaluating Nonwoven Fabrics. 1. Scope. This guide covers procedures for testing nonwoven fabrics. Find the most up-to-date version of ASTM D at Engineering This standard is issued under the fixed designation D ; the number 1 This guide is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D13 on Textiles and.
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Abstract Greige raw cotton by-products resulting from cotton ginning and mill processes have long been bleached for use in absorbent nonwoven products. More statistics x1117 editors and authors Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. The AATCC drop test measures the time it takes for one drop of water applied to a fabric held in an embroidery hoop to be absorbed when the sheen disappears.
You can download and open this file to your own computer but DRM prevents opening this file zstm another computer, including a networked server. The cellulose-water interactions have been discussed 1d117 light of these findings. Bound versus free aetm and crystallite size in cotton blends It is an understatement to say that the nature of the binding of water to cotton plays a role in the swelling of the blended fabrics as are examined here. Figure 1 diagrams the process of hydroentanglement.
There is little data on the presence of waxes and pectin in comber noils and gin motes, so a relative comparison of cotton cuticle contributions is not e1117. The modification involved using an infrared lamp to dry the materials rather than a laboratory oven as called for in the standard methods.
In order to determine the water content of cotton fibers via Karl Fischer titration KFTfiber samples must be conditioned to standard testing conditions, On the other hand, the crystallite size of cellulose in the gin motes and comber noils was larger than cellulose crystallites in greige cotton linters.
Table 4 gives the percent crystallinity and cellulose crystallite size of the different types of cotton fibers compared with bleached cotton. You may delete a aatm from your Alert Profile at any time.
December 4th Reviewed: However, ordered microfibrillar cellulose, which is composed of cellulose crystallites, possesses surface hydroxyls that present accessible water binding sites where penetrating water may form a monolayer termed nonfreezing water at a level asm 0. Experimental materials and methods A commercially available bale of precleaned greige cotton was acquired from T. A sample of bleached cotton prepared by similar process was not available for the testing.
ASTM D Standard Guide for Evaluating Nonwoven Fabrics
The pH of the sample is about 5. A quantity of cotton gin mote fibers was also obtained from T. After sinking, the sample is then allowed to remain submerged in water for 10 s. The potential to use greige cotton by-products as an economical source for absorbent nonwoven blends is explored.
Crystallinity index and d11117 size of the different fibers. X-ray powder diffraction patterns of comber noil, gin motes, and UltraClean cotton.
Swell test, k min This standard is also available to be included in Standards Subscriptions. Balanced material surface polarity, swelling, density, and moisture uptake is key to optimizing absorbent nonwovens for use in hygiene, incontinence, and even wound care applications, and the results of this study illustrate how qstm properties may be tuned in with cotton by products used in combination with greige cotton lint.
Approximately, a 1-g sample was used for each measurement on the Kett FD These test methods cover procedures for testing nonwoven fabrics. However, cellulose crystallite size varied. The test methods used in the study are as follows: First chapter Depolymerization and Activation of Lignin: Conclusion This study has shown that the ability of cotton gin mote fibers to modulate swelling and moisture uptake is beneficial in absorbent products.
The samples were weighed into 0.
Consideration of the phenomena of water binding to cellulosic fiber, from crystalline to fibrillar state, crystalline cellulose crsytallites of 36 cellulose chains or more has been characterized as low water binding The sample is rolled into a cylindrical shape, upon itself, and placed in a basket of standardized weight and size.
The results have shown that the cotton gin mote fibers, compared to the polyester fibers, yield improved moisture uptake while giving comparable swelling attributes. The microstructure of cotton fibers allows the penetration of water, in the case of the greige cotton nonwovens studied here.
The other method is the recent ASTM Karl Fischer titration method for water content developed for lint cotton, raw and processed. ASTM Sink d117 s. Results and discussion 3. The differences between KFT and Atm are due, in part, to the different nature of the two methods. The cotton ginning by-products are used in numerous applications [ 4 – 9 ]. Thus, the hydroentanglement process promotes the disruption of the fiber cuticle that retains some wax and pectin while exposing cellulose fibrils and microfibrils to water penetration.
If the document is revised or amended, you will be notified by email. All weight loss is attributed to moisture. Electrokinetic data for the hydroentangled fabric samples made with the different fibers and their blends.
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