In this article we will discuss about the process of androgenesis, explained with the Success of anther culture is highly dependent on the genotype of the plant. The success of androgenesis dependent on the variety used, the growth . Razdan M.K, An introduction to plant tissue culture, ().Oxford. In vitro androgenesis is an important component of plant biotechnology when the pollen .. In: Korea-China Plant Tissue Culture Symposium, Academia Sinica.

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As colchicine is a spindle inhibitor it is used to induce chromosome duplication in various ways: Isolated microspores pollen are ideal for various genetic manipulations transformation, mutagenesis.

It is believed that the activated charcoal removes the inhibitors from the medium and facilitates haploid formation. The success of anther or pollen androgwnesis largely depends on the genotype of andrrogenesis donor plant. These plants may grow up to a flowering stage, but viable gametes cannot be formed due to lack of one set of homologous chromosomes. The selected flower buds of young plants are surface-sterilized and anthers removed along with their filaments.

This variation may be due to endomitosis or fusion of various nuclei during the developmental stages of anthers at the time of excision and culture.

Production of Haploid Plants (With Diagram)

When plants are treated with ethreal, multinucleated pollens are produced. The cultured microspores mainly follow four distinct pathways during the initial stages of in vitro androgenesis. Answer Now and androgenesiz others. The vegetative cell does not divide, e.


The importance of haploids in the field of plant breeding and genetics was realised long ago. Appropriate treatment of anthers is required for good success of haploid production. In recent years, some workers have developed specially designed media for anther cultures of cereals.

Process of Androgenesis (With Diagram) | Biotechnology

There are two approaches in plaant anther culture and pollen microspore culture. The process of apomixis or parthenogenesis development of embryo from an unfertilized egg is responsible for the spontaneous natural production of haploids. The success was much higher by in vitro techniques. Anybody can ask a question Anybody can answer The best answers are voted up and rise to the top.

Anthers with microspores ranging from tetrad to the bi-nucleate fissue are responsive to culture. Production of gynogenic haploids is particularly useful in plants with male sterile genotype. Ultra violet rays or X-rays may be used to induce chromosomal breakage and their subsequent elimination to produce haploids. The generative cell, on the other hand, degenerates after one or two divisions—e.

This results in the production of diploid homozygous cells and ultimately plants. Young plants, grown under optimal conditions of light, temperature and humidity, are suitable for androgenesis.

There are two approaches for the production of haploid plants. For a successful in vivo androgenesis, the egg nucleus has to be inactivated or eliminated before fertilization.

Hybrids can be produced by elimination of one of the parental genomes as a result of distant interspecific or inter-generic crosses hybridization. It is possible to trigger female gametophytes megaspores of angiosperms to develop into a sporophyte.

A good knowledge of the various factors that influence androgenesis will help to improve the production of androgenic haploids. Composition of medium is one of the most important factors determining the success of anther culture. Anthers at a very young stage with microspore mother cells or tetrads and late stage with bi-nucleate microspores are usually not suitable for androgenesis. The plants grown under best natural environmental conditions light, temperature, nutrition, CO 2 etc.


The temperature shock helps in dissolution of microtubules and causes abnormal division of microspores.

Process of Androgenesis (With Diagram) | Biotechnology

The procedure for gynogenic haploid production is briefly described. This multicellular mass may form a callus which later differentiates into a plant through callus phase. Gynogenic haploids were first developed by San Noem from the ovary cultures of Hordeum vulgare.

During the growth of callus, chromosomal doubling occurs by endomitosis. If they are at the correct stage, each anther is gently separated from the filament and the intact anthers are inoculated on a nutrient medium. Further, induction of androgenesis is better if anthers are stored at low temperature, prior to culture e. In vitro culture of un-pollinated ovaries or ovules is usually employed when the anther tisdue give.

Answer Now and help others. The Indian scientists Cuha and Maheswari reported the direct development of haploid embryos and plantlets from microspores of Datura innoxia by the tissur of excised anthers. It helps to develop the multinucleate condition with fewer starch grains.

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